Large oval-headed tree with arching branches covered with 5 inch long streamers of white flowers from May through June , 1/3 inch fruits turn from green thru red to black & are an important source of food for birds (turkey, ruffed grouse, bobwhite, catbirds, waxwings!.) & other wildlife (rabbits, fox, squirrels!) in the fall when they ripen, long finely toothed glossy leaves turn yellow, red & orange in the fall, scaley dark bark of mature trees is interesting all year long, twigs have reddish bark, heat & drought tolerant, nice cut flowers, nectar source for butterflies & bees (including honeybees), excellent wood for woodworking & furniture, bitter-sweet fruit can be used in making jelly & wine, suitable for bonsai(!), food plant for more than 30 species of butterflies & moths including the Viceroy (Limenitis archippus), Columbia silkmoth (Hyalophora columbia), Eastern Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio glaucus), Red Spotted Purple (Limenitis arthemis astyanax), Promethea Silkmoth (Callosamia promethea) and Coral Hairstreak (Satyrium titus) caterpillars.
40 to 60 foot tall & 20 to 30 foot wide
Plant Hardiness Zones: 4a-8b
Native Range: NS, s. QC & ON south to c. FL & AZ, with populations in BC as well
Germination - Difficult: Soak for 2 days, cold stratify 2M, sow > 0.5" deep, keep moist.
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