A majestic & versatile shade tree, inconspicuous small greenish flowers are followed in the fall by persistent small (1/4”) hard orange to dark purple/red sweet fruits that are a favorite of many birds (including fox sparrows, towhees, robins, cedar waxwings, bluebirds & mockingbirds) & are eaten through the winter by non-migratory birds (it's a good nesting tree too!), finely toothed 4 foot tapering leaves, attractive large corky warts & ridges develop on the bark, mature trees have elm-like shape with a fine branching habit, tolerant of tough conditions such as high acid soil, drought, air pollution, constant wind, salt spray & short term flooding (once established), host plant for caterpillars of many butterflies including the Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis), Tawny Emperor (Asterocampa clyton)), Question Mark & Eastern Comma (Polygonia interrogationis & P. comma)), Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa)) & American Snout Butterfly (Libytheana carinenta)), fast growing under favorable conditions, suitable for bonsai (!). Give these plants some shade for the first few years after transplanting to help them establish – they take a year to two to adjust before they put on a growth spurt.
up to 80’ tall & 40 to 60' wide
Plant Hardiness Zones: 3a-8a
Native Range: s. ON & QC, NH south to n. FL & e. NM. Rare in NH
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