Groups of up to 20 small green/white flowers from June to July produce dark blue black berries with a waxy bloom that persist through winter and are an important food source for overwintering songbirds, dioecious (male & female flowers produced on separate plants), shiny 3 to 5 veined leaves are 2-6" long and often almost round, red fall color, climbs by tendrils, almost all stems are armed with large sturdy thorns, left to its own devices and allowed to spread - it will form a thorny impenetrable thicket that is good wildlife cover, can be trained along a fence or trellis (but root suckers must be managed), tolerant of a wide range of soils (clay, sand, gravel/rocky), flowers are a nectar and pollen source for native bees, host plant to several moths including the Curve-lined Owlet (Phyprosopus callitrichoides).
up to 20' long
Plant Hardiness Zones: 5a-9a
Native Range: NS west across s. ON to MN & SC, south to n Fl and e TX
Germination - Moderately Difficult: Light physical scarification before planting. Germination may take 2 months or more.
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