A majestic & versatile shade tree, inconspicuous small greenish flowers are followed in the fall by persistent small (1/4) hard orange to dark purple/red sweet fruits that are a favorite of many birds (including fox sparrows, towhees, robins, cedar waxwings, bluebirds & mockingbirds) & are eaten through the winter by non-migratory birds (its a good nesting tree too!), finely toothed 4 tapering leaves, attractive large corky warts & ridges develop on the bark, mature trees have elm-like shape with a fine branching habit, tolerant of tough conditions such as high acid soil, drought, air pollution, constant wind, salt spray & short term flooding (once established), host plant for caterpillars of many butterflies including the Hackberry Emperor (Asterocampa celtis), Tawny Emperor (Asterocampa clyton)), Question Mark & Eastern Comma (Polygonia interrogationis & P. comma)), Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa)) & American Snout Butterfly (Libytheana carinenta)), fast growing under favorable conditions, suitable for bonsai (!). Give these plants some shade for the first few years after transplanting to help them establish they take a year to two to adjust before they put on a growth spurt.
up to 80 tall & 40 to 60' wide
Plant Hardiness Zones: 3a-8a
Native Range: s. ON & QC, NH south to n. FL & e. NM. Rare in NH
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